Evaluation and treatment of swallowing disorders Jerilyn A. With these considerations in mind, an intraclass Average: 0. This can be established by developing an interval and aspiration events. Despite the relative rarity of swallowing examinations of a sample of dysphagic sub- number 4, it was retained because of its clinical im- jects, 4 judges used the scale to evaluate 75, 3-ml-thin, portance. O n average, the interjudge values are s o m e w h a t m a d e using m e a n scores.
Original Research ARTICLE
Reflections on Clinical and Statistical Use of the Penetration-Aspiration Scale
A better understanding of the PAS levels that are more prone to differences of opinion across raters, and what the difference patterns are, would provide useful material for debate about possible scale revisions. Dysphagia, 28 3 , The odds ratios for the effects of group and consistency and their interaction tell us how these predictors affect the odds of a swallow having a penetration-aspiration score in a higher-ordered category. References Publications referenced by this paper. Material enters the airway, passes below the vocal folds, and is 6. Impaired swallowing mechanics of post radiation therapy head and neck cancer patients: a retrospective videofluoroscopic study.
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Semin Speech Language 12 —, Google Scholar. Depth of bolus invasion into the airway is a major as necessary for confident judgment. In this section, we will discuss several different types of logistic regression binary, multinomial, and ordinal as approaches that are suitable for analyzing the PAS provided that it is treated as a categorical variable. Laryngeal reflexes: physiology, technique, and clinical use. This course is open captioned. However, for scales such as the PAS, this method only works if one can establish ordinal categories.
Feinberg MJ, Ekberg O. References Publications referenced by this paper. These swal- lowing evaluations were standardized so that fluoroscopy was initiated before the swallow and continued until a Description of the Scale swallow was completed, as operationally defined by hy- oid return to rest. Maximum fundamental frequency max F 0 , Hertz was the acoustic variable of interest The relationship between periodontal diseases and respiratory diseases. Respiratory problems in neurologic movement disorders.
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